Stuttering could be a is a fancy communication disorder that not solely interferes with the forward American state ow of speech, however that additionally creates negative emotions and reactions by each the speaker and perceiver (Guitar, 2006). The negative feelings that an individual United Nations agency stutters experiences associated with speaking square measure sometimes combined by negative reactions expressed by listeners and also the anticipation of negative reactions(Hulit & Wirtz, 1994; Silverman,1996; Yaruss & Quesal, 2004).
Thus, listeners Negative attitudes towards PWS will cause the formation of stereotypes. A stereotype is “an exaggerated belief related to a class. The perform of stereotypes is to justify (rationalize) our conduct in respect to that category” (All-port, 1986, p. 191).
Stereotypes square measure ne'er beneficial as a result of they produce perceptions and beliefs concerning people with disabilities while not taking under consideration the individual’s distinctive talents.
In keeping with good (2001),stereotyping is negative for many reasons.
l First, stereotypes remove a person’s individuality.
l Second, stereotypes serve to exclude individuals from the overall population and categorize them.
l Third, stereotypes cause people to isolate and take away themselves from varied opportunities and experiences.
The literature indicates that not solely will the general population stereotype, however therefore do speech-language pathologists (S-LPs; Kalinowski, Armson, Stuart, & Lerman,1993; Turnbaugh, Guitar, & Hoffman, 1979; Woods & Williams, 1971, 1976; Yairi & Williams, 1970).
Yairi and Williams (1970) asked 127 S-LPs from public colleges in the state of Iowa to list adjectives and traits that best described boys United Nations agency stutter.
Out of twenty six often mentioned traits, seventeen were determined to be undesirable. Among the negative traits that were reported most often by SLPs were nervous (39% of clinicians), keep (32% of clinicians),withdrawn (27% of clinicians), tense (27% of clinicians),anxious (26% of clinicians), self-conscious (24% of clinicians), and insecure (23% of clinicians).
These findings suggested that S-LPs control negative perceptions concerning the personalities of school-aged boys United Nations agency stutter. In associate extension of the work by Yairi and Williams(1970), Woods and Williams (1971) surveyed the perceptions of forty five S-LPs toward inarticulate .
The S-LPs were asked to list five adjectives to explain associate male person United Nations agency stuttered. The authors found that sixteen of the twenty four adjectives reported were negative. The adjectives most frequently reported were anxious, self-conscious, perfectionistic, apprehensive, and tense. These findings were the same as those within the Yairi and Williams study.
Woods and Williams (1976) developed a 25-item semantic differential scale, that has been used typically in the inarticulate literature, together with within the gift study. This scale, concerning the idea of “stutterer” was completed by twenty five S-LPs, twenty primary school lecturers, twenty one oldsters of youngsters with communication disorders, twenty two folks that stuttered,and twenty faculty students.
The aim of the study was to survey the adjectives employed by these teams to gauge four hypothetical constructs (typical 8-year-old male, typical 8-year-old male United Nations agency stutters, typical male person, and typical adult male United Nations agency stutters).
Results indicated that twenty three of the 25 things for the constructs of PWS were significantly additional negative than those applied to the constructs of individuals United Nations agency did not stutter (PWDS). Among the negative adjectives reported to explain folks that stuttered were nervous,tense, shy, anxious, fearful, reticent, and guarded.Other studies support the notion that SLPs report negative attitudes and stereotypes of PWS.
Rags-dale and Ashby (1982) asked 206 S-LPs to report their perceptions of seven variables associated with inarticulate including:
(a) inarticulate ,
(b) inarticulate medical care,
(c) boys United Nations agency stutter,
(d) adult males United Nations agency stutter,
(e) women United Nations agency stutter,
(f) adult females United Nations agency stutter, and
(g) oldsters of youngsters United Nations agency stutter.
The S-LPs used a 30-item linguistics differential scale to report their perceptions of those seven variables.
The 30 items on the linguistics differential scale were classified into five factors together with -
(a) analysis (good–bad, pleasant–unpleasant);
(b) efficiency (strong–weak, hard–soft);
(c) activity (tense–relaxed, hot–cold);
(d) quality(familiar–unfamiliar, clear–confusing); and
(e) anxiety (anxious–calm, afraid–unafraid).
The researchers studied the relationship between reports of perceptions toward these seven classes and individual characteristics of the S-LPs. The characteristics of the S-LPs studied enclosed age, whether the SLP control the certificate of clinical competency,gender, educational degrees, work in inarticulate , and clinical expertise.
The study findings prompt that increasing age, higher degrees, additional work, or more clinical expertise failed to significantly manufacture additional positive evaluations by the S-LPs. S-LPs United Nations agency control the certificate of clinical competency reported significantly more positive evaluations of the seven variables of inarticulate examined during this study than S-LPs United Nations agency failed to have the certificate.
For the individual variables of inarticulate , the variable inarticulate was judged significantly additional absolutely than all others. inarticulate medical care was judged significantly less absolutely than all of the opposite variables studied. SLps did not choose adults United Nations agency stuttered, youngsters United Nations agency stuttered,males United Nations agency stuttered, and females United Nations agency stuttered significantly different from one another. The variable oldsters of stutterers was judged additional absolutely than the ideas of youngsters who stuttered, adults United Nations agency stuttered, males United Nations agency stuttered,and females United Nations agency stuttered.
From 1973 to 1983, Cooper and Cooper (1985) studied changes within the data and attitudes of 674 S-LPs toward PWS. The aim of the study was to explore whether or not or not SLP’s attitudes improved throughout this point. S-LPs completed the practitioner Attitudes Toward inarticulate Inventory (Cooper, 1975). throughout that study amount,there was a larger than 2 hundredth decrease within the range of clinicians United Nations agency reported beliefs that individuals United Nations agency stuttered had a disturbance, had mis-perceptions of their problems, and had difficulties with personal relationships.
Despite these trends, sixty seven of clinicians continued to carry beliefs that almost all folks that stuttered had psychological problems, five hundredth of clinicians reported that individuals United Nations agency stuttered shared conventional temperament traits, and 66% of clinicians believed that individuals United Nations agency stuttered had feelings of inferiority.
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