August 1

In 1957, the United States and Canada announced the formation of NORAD – North American Air Defense. It is a combined effort that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for North America. The command center is located at Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs. The NORAD commander is a four-star U.S. general and the deputy commander is a Canadian three-star general. In 1989, NORAD expanded operations to include drug trafficking via small aircraft.

Charles Whitman was an engineering student and former U.S. Marine who killed 16 people and wounded 22 others in and around a tower at the University of Texas in 1966. Whitman shot many of his victims from the 28th floor observation deck of the tower. Whitman had murdered his wife and mother before the spree continued at the university. Whitman was eventually killed by an Austin police officer. It was the deadliest college shooting until Virginia Tech in 2007.

In 2001, the Chief Justice for the Alabama Supreme Court, Roy Moore, had a monument to the Ten Commandments installed in the rotunda of the Alabama Supreme Court House. On August 1, he held a press conference to unveil the monument, which began a media frenzy over the controversy. Later that year, the ACLU filed a lawsuit asking the monument be removed because it sent a message that the government was encouraging the practice of a particular religion. In the trial that followed, a U.S. District judge ruled that the monument had to be removed by August 20, 2003. Moore announced that he would not follow the court’s ruling. But the monument was moved to a non-public area of the building and eventually out of the building in 2004 because of the threat of heavy fines to the government of Alabama. Moore was removed from his office in November of 2003.

Birthdays Today

1921Jack Kramer, American tennis player (d. 2009)
1933Dom DeLuise, American actor, singer, director, and producer (d. 2009)
1936Yves Saint Laurent, French fashion designer, co-founded Yves Saint Laurent (d. 2008)
1942Jerry Garcia, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Grateful Dead, Legion of Mary, Reconstruction, Old and in the Way, and New Riders of the Purple Sage) (d. 1995)
1950Roy Williams, American basketball player and coach




Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.