In 1956, the southbound portion of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opened to traffic. The route is composed of two parallel bridges crossing Lake Pontchartrain in southern Louisiana. The longer of the two bridges is 23.83 miles long. The bridges are supported by 9,500 concrete pilings and about 43,000 cars use the causeway each day. The original cost was $30.7 million.
The Moscow-Washington Hotline began operation in 1963. It connects the Pentagon with the Kremlin and is sometimes called the “red telephone.” Originally, the hotline handled only Teletype messages that were encrypted. Satellite communication was added in the 1970s, fax messages began in 1983, and email was in use beginning in 2007. The first message that was sent in 1963 was "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890." The next use of the hotline was during the Six-Day War in 1967.
Thurgood Marshall was the first African American to be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court, and the Senate confirmed him in 1967. President Johnson nominated Marshall on June 13, 1967 and the confirmation vote was 69-11. Marshall went on to serve on the Court for the next 24 years as one of the liberal justices. He favored the protection of individual rights, including abortion, and he opposed the death penalty. Marshall retired from the Supreme Court in 1991 and was replaced by Clarence Thomas, who was appointed by President George H.W. Bush. Marshall died of heart failure in 1993 at the age of 84 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
1896 – Raymond Massey, Canadian-American actor and playwright (d. 1983)
1898 – Shirley Booth, American actress and singer (d. 1992)
1908 – Fred MacMurray, American actor and singer (d. 1991)
1918 – Ted Williams, American baseball player and manager (d. 2002)
1930 – Warren Buffett, American businessman and philanthropist
1943 – Jean-Claude Killy, French skier
1944 – Tug McGraw, American baseball player (d. 2004)
1946 – Peggy Lipton, American model and actress
Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.