December 1

Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. She became known as “the first lady of civil rights. She refused to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger after the white section was filled. The Montgomery Bus Boycott occurred from December 1 until December 20 and eventually a Supreme Court decision declared that bus segregation in Montgomery and Alabama was unconstitutional. Parks eventually moved to Detroit where she served as secretary to John Conyers, a member of the House of Representatives.


The Selective Service System conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War in 1969. Men born from 1944 to 1950 were affected by the lotteries. The days of the year were written on paper slips that were placed in plastic capsules, mixed in a shoebox and then dumped into a large glass jar. September 14 was the first date drawn, so all men with that birthday were assigned number 1. The second lottery used letters to determine the order of men who had the same birthday. People then noticed that days in November and December fell nearer the lower draft numbers, perhaps indicating that the capsules were not mixed well enough while in the shoeboxes.


In 1990, sections of the “Chunnel” from Britain and France met under the seabed. The Chunnel opened for traffic in 1994. The Channel Tunnel is a 31.4-mile rail tunnel that links the United Kingdom with the European continent. The tunnel carries high-speed Eurostar trains with a speed limit of 99 mph. The project cost over 4.65 billion and went 80% over budget. Two fires in the Chunnel occurred in 1996 and 2008.


Birthdays Today


1897Cyril Ritchard, Australian-American actor and singer (d. 1977)

1911Walter Alston, American baseball player and manager (d. 1984)

1913Mary Martin, American actress and singer (d. 1990)

1933Lou Rawls, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (d. 2006)

1935Woody Allen, American actor, director, and screenwriter

1939Lee Trevino, American golfer

1940Richard Pryor, American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2005)

1945Bette Midler, American singer-songwriter, actress and producer

1949Pablo Escobar, Colombian drug lord (d. 1993)

1958Candace Bushnell, American journalist and author

Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.