The surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii took place in 1941. The Imperial Japanese Navy launched the attack on the American naval base on the island of Oahu. Japan was expanding its territory in Southeast Asia and the attack was designed to stop American interference. Simultaneous attacks by the Japanese occurred in the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Pearl Harbor was attacked by 353 planes in two waves, launched from six carriers. Four U.S. Navy battleships were sunk, with damaging occurring to all eight. 2,403 Americans were killed during the attack. The attack shocked Americans and led directly to the United States entering World War II.
Instant replay was first used in a network televised sports event in 1963 during coverage of the Army-Navy football game. After technical glitches were overcome, the only replay was that of a touchdown. Instant replay has become much more sophisticated over the years and is credited with assisting football’s rise in popularity to sports fans. Replays play an important role in a football game, considering there are fewer than 15 minutes of “real” action during a game. Replay in many sports now assists game officials make the correct calls during games.
In 1999, A&M Records brought a lawsuit against Napster. Napster had developed software used for peer-to-peer sharing of computer files. Rather than buying record albums or individual songs, computer users could share the digitized files of a song with friends and anyone who could connect to the computer network set up by Napster. The judge in the case ruled that the use of Napster was “commercial” and that users were violating copyright laws designed to protect the artists who created the songs. Shawn Fanning had created Napster and his defense of the system was based upon “fair use.” The U.S. District Court of Appeals ruled that Napster could be held liable to copyright violations. The Court ordered Napster to monitor the sharing of files and when it could not comply, it shut down. Napster started again by trying to sell music using a subscription service and Bertelsmann acquired its assets in 2002.
1915 – Eli Wallach, American actor (d. 2014)
1923 – Ted Knight, American actor (d. 1986)
1932 – Ellen Burstyn, American actress and singer
1942 – Harry Chapin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1981)
1947 – Johnny Bench, American baseball player and sportscaster
1949 – Tom Waits, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
1956 – Larry Bird, American basketball player and coach
Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.