June 21

In 1948, Columbia Records introduced the long-playing record album. Known as an LP, it turned at 331⁄3 rpm. It became the standard in the music industry for vinyl record albums. At the time it was introduced, records were produced on 78-rpm discs that were 12 inches in diameter and could only hold about five minutes of playing time per side. The new discs had finer grooves and could hold about 22 minutes of playing time per side. The new format was ideal for classical music, but it also allowed for ten or more songs of popular music to be stored on a single album.


Cardinal Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini was elected as the new Pope of the Roman Catholic Church in 1963. He succeeded Pope John XXIII who had died on June 3. Taking the name Pope Paul VI, he continued the second Vatican Council, which closed in 1965. The new pope implemented numerous reforms and improved relations with Protestants and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 1954, Montini had been named the Archbishop of Milan and in 1958 he joined the College of Cardinals. Pope Paul VI died in 1978 after a period of ill health and he is buried in one of the grottos of the Vatican in a simple grave in the ground. While visiting Italy in 1977, I happened to see the Pope at the summer residence of Castel Gandolfo. It was quite an experience as the crowd greeted the pontiff with enthusiastic cheers as he stepped out onto a small balcony and gave his daily address.


Three civil rights’ workers were murdered in Mississippi in 1963. Members of the Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan shot James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner at close range. The three men had been working on the “Freedom Summer” campaign, attempting to register African Americans to vote. Their murders touched off a national outrage and a massive federal investigation. Their bodies were not found until 44 days after the murders in an earthen dam near the site of the shootings. The Mississippi state government refused to prosecute, so the federal government eventually obtained minor convictions for seven people. The film, Mississippi Burning (1988), contains parts of the actual story.

Birthdays Today
1921Jane Russell, American actress and singer (d. 2011)
1944Tony Scott, English-American director and producer (d. 2012)
1948Ian McEwan, English author and screenwriter

1953Benazir Bhutto, Pakistani politician, 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan (d. 2007

Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.