June 23

In 1960, the Food and Drug Administration approved Enovid for use as an oral contraceptive. The drugs contained in Enovid is a combination of an estrogen and a progestogen, that, when taken orally, inhibit female fertility. More than 100 million women take this type of birth control pill worldwide. The impact of the pill upon society has had many implications.

Warren Burger replaced Earl Warren as the 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1969. Burger served until 1986. Although he was a conservative, the Supreme Court delivered many changes in American society with their rulings on abortion, capital punishment, and school desegregation while Burger was chief justice. Eisenhower had appointed him as an Assistant Attorney General and this gave him opportunities to present cases in front of the Supreme Court. In 1968, President Lyndon nominated Abe Fortas to replace Earl Warren, but a Senate filibuster stopped the confirmation. Warren remained until Nixon appointed Burger in 1969. Burger died at age 86 in 1994.

Title IX became effective in 1972. It is a part of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 and states the “no person in the United States shall be excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." Title IX has given females in education and athletics chances and choices that had been previously denied to them. Debate continues as to whether this law has had a detrimental effect on male athletic teams. Title IX also states that it is the responsibility of higher education to better control sexual violence.

Birthdays Today

1927Bob Fosse, American actor, dancer, choreographer, and director (d. 1987)
1940Wilma Rudolph, American runner (d. 1994)
1948Clarence Thomas, American judge
1957Frances McDormand, American actress

Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.