November 16

Skylab 4 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida in 1973. It was the third and final mission in the Skylab series. Three astronauts spent a little over 84 days in space performing scientific experiments in the areas of medicine, solar observations, and observation of the Comet Kohoutek. Gerald Carr, William Pogue, and Edward Gibson were the three astronauts on the mission that reached a maximum altitude of 270 miles above the Earth. Four space walks were also part of the mission and they completed 2,214 orbits of the Earth.


President Richard Nixon signed the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act in 1973 that gave permission for the construction of an oil pipeline connecting the North Slope oil fields in Alaska to Port Valdez. The pipeline that conveys the oil is about 800 miles long and 48 inches in diameter. The pipeline is privately owned by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company and was built between 1974 and 1977 after the price of oil and gasoline rose dramatically due to the worldwide political crisis of 1973. Extreme cold, rugged terrain, and isolated areas were barriers that had to be overcome. The first barrel of crude oil was sent through the pipeline in 1977.


Benazir Bhutto was elected as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1988. She served two non-consecutive terms from 1988 to 1990 and then again from 1993 to 1996. She was the daughter of the former Prime Minister Zulifikar Ali Bhutto who had founded the Pakistan Peoples Party. Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister of a Muslim nation. Her father was assassinated in 1979 and her assassination occurred in 2007. Benazir Bhutto went to Dubai in exile in 1997 and returned to Pakistan in 2007. She was killed in a bombing incident during a PPP rally two weeks before the 2008 elections in which she was a leading opposition candidate.


Birthdays Today


1930Chinua Achebe, Nigerian author, poet, and academic (d. 2013)

1946Jo Jo White, American basketball player and coach

1958Marg Helgenberger, American actress

1964Dwight Gooden, American baseball player

1964Diana Krall, Canadian singer-songwriter and pianist

Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.