November 4

Photo by Kim Kunzig Halper of Tucson, Arizona

In 1966, the Arno River flooded Florence, Italy, leaving thousands homeless and millions of art masterpieces and rare books were destroyed. It was Florence’s worst flood since 1557. The river crested at a maximum of 22 feet and approximately 600,000 tons of mud, rubble, and sewage destroyed more than three million books and manuscripts as well as 14,000 works of art. Over 100 people lost their lives in the flooding. Following this disaster, money began to pour into Florence for the restoration work of the buildings and works of art.


A mob of Iranians, mostly college students took over the US Embassy building in Tehran in 1979 touching off the Iranian hostage crisis. 52 American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days until January 20. 1981. The crisis stemmed from the support that the United States gave the Shah of Iran during his rule and exile. A rescue operation on April 24, 1980 failed and severely hurt the administration of President Carter. Negotiations finally released the hostages, just as Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as the next president.


In 2008, Barack Obama was elected as the first African American President of the United States. He became the 44th president after serving in the Illinois Senate and the United States Senate. Born in Hawaii, he is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School. He has experience as a civil rights lawyer and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School. Obama won the Democratic primary campaign over Hillary Clinton and defeated John McCain in the election of 2008.


Birthdays Today


1916Walter Cronkite, American journalist, voice actor, and producer (d. 2009)

1918Art Carney, American actor and singer (d. 2003)

1937Loretta Swit, American actress

1946Laura Bush, American educator, 45th First Lady of the United States

1946Robert Mapplethorpe, American photographer (d. 1989)

1961Ralph Macchio, American actor

Larry Moskal began his career as a Social Studies teacher in 1971. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with degrees in history and education. Larry taught Social Studies for the Ken-Ton School system, a suburban school system north of Buffalo, New York until 2005, and then taught and was the Dean of Students at San Miguel High School in Tucson. At Ken-Ton, he pioneered several online courses for high school students. In the 1980s, he spent three years teaching in Colombia, South America and spent four years at Lewiston-Porter High School. He currently is the PowerSchool Administrator for San Miguel accomplishing his work over the Internet.