Because the bus, the bus line of a single, the environmental complexity is not high, the speed compared to ordinary vehicles is low, so unmanned technology in the bus more likely Sensor to take the lead in promoting. Unmanned bus can really on the road, in addition to the need for the improvement of laws and regulations, there is still a long way to go technically
Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd.'s car in the world's first 12 meters intelligent driving bus, the body of the red word - 'smart driving bus', highlighting its special place. If you do not know the circumstances of the bus ride, do not think it is different from the ordinary bus - gray seats, two rows of top cover grips, blue floor ... ... driver's seat over No one, the steering wheel is automatically rotating, the car is steadily ahead. From the middle of August, intelligent driving bus in Zhuzhou road driving demonstration, which Temperature Sensor is in the car electric unmanned bus prototype results show stage, causing widespread public concern.
In recent years, with the development of artificial intelligence, unmanned driving has been the major technology companies and car manufacturers darling. From the Google, Apple, excellent step and other high-tech companies, to Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Tesla, Toyota and other car manufacturers, they trial production of unmanned vehicles have entered the road test phase. Unmanned car who first mass production, has become a hot topic. Unmanned in public transport has also been constantly explored. Insiders believe that unmanned technology in the bus is more likely to take the lead in promoting.
Ding Yanchao car research institute is Tsinghua University and Suzhou municipal government jointly build a comprehensive automotive industry research institutions. At that time they felt that the Institute has been equipped with some unmanned car upper layer algorithm, the bottom of the linear control, the implementation of institutional control, collecting maps, path planning and other technologies, the ability to do no car project development. Ding Yanchao also saw the advantages of unmanned vehicles: 90% of the traffic accidents are caused by human factors, and unmanned vehicles by artificial intelligence driving, not fatigue and mistakes, perception and response speed are more than human. Its introduction can make road traffic more secure, but also can be freed from the boring driving out, reduce the social cost of employment. Unmanned bus in the future promotion may be easier, because the bus, the bus line of a single, the environmental complexity is not high, the speed Pressure Sensor is lower than the average vehicle, CMB bus business, from our lives more near. They launched the bus ride 6 meters long, a total of 17 seats.
China Electric and Suzhou Automobile Research Institute have the same starting point. Public transport and unmanned combination has a great advantage, the characteristics of public transport is relatively fixed scene, which is difficult to achieve unmanned driving. Unmanned driving needs high-precision map positioning, Suzhou Automotive Research Institute currently collect their own local map information. Compared to Baidu, Gaode is currently widely used map, they can collect the data to the centimeter level. The more accurate, the car will follow your scheduled track to go, will not deviate from. From the exterior point of view, unmanned bus and other vehicles are not very different, but its internal is unique. Tang Guangdian said, 'We use the principle of bionics, imitation of the human brain, the cerebellum to work with the process, the decision-making system has two computing units, including the global planning unit, like our brain, responsible for collecting vehicle position, traffic information After the turn, acceleration, parking and other instructions, while the local planning calculation unit like our cerebellum, is responsible for the calculation of vehicle dynamics, and control the vehicle to achieve the steering, braking, acceleration and other actions.
Suzhou Automobile Research Institute developed a small cylinder in the head of a small cylindrical thing, which is a laser radar, is also an unmanned one 'eye', used to monitor the surrounding obstacles and information. The inside of the windshield is another 'eye' - the camera, the main detection lane line, traffic lights and so on. If you do not look carefully, you may also ignore the two bumps on the roof, which are GPS and inertial navigation, can capture the vehicle's positioning information, and match the expected route. 'Eye' found the situation, the information will be passed to the 'brain'. In the road test, the Suzhou Automobile Research Institute put the 'brain' on the trunk, it is actually Speed Sensor a black box with wires inserted, but which can control the collected data processing algorithm, make a decision, and then send it to The underlying controllers, such as steering controllers, throttle brakes, etc., issue commands that allow 'hands' and 'feet' to move.
In fact, the Suzhou Automobile Research Institute is still equipped with a driver on the road test, and before the start of the use of manual operation for a long distance. To do so, on the one hand, taking into account the requirements of traffic regulations, on the other hand is for security reasons. When the car suddenly a dangerous situation, the driver can take over control of the car in time. From the driving operation, the smart bus still retains all the traditional bus control characteristics, which is the characteristics of the car. It can achieve unmanned driving, can also be manually operated by the driver, both can achieve a seamless switch, a very good man-machine friendly.
Foreign research and development of unmanned buses began earlier. In 2000, Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan has developed a three-car unmanned bus fleet, through the road in the middle of the permanent magnet control vehicle direction, the car before the collision radar, infrared cameras and other devices can After the detection of obstacles to inform the management system to stop, the car from the sensor can also accurately measure the distance between the car and the car, adjust the speed. However, the general characteristics of foreign unmanned buses is relatively small body, fewer passengers, such as the development of Zhuzhou in the car by the 12-meter-long bus is rare. Body length, will inevitably increase the difficulty of unmanned technology. Body length is different from the turning radius is not the same, the cart is easy to run into the road teeth. Which in the environmental perception has a very high technical requirements; there are in the control, the vehicle through the regional planning, have a relatively high technical requirements.
Passengers are most worried about security issues. Excellent step, Google and other unmanned cars have had a car accident, Tesla unmanned car or even made life. But the unmanned bus is not a big accident, only the Estonian bus has a red light, through the crosswalk behavior, did not cause casualties - but do not forget that it is only about 10 km / h.
While the domestic R \u0026 D unmanned bus speed faster, keep at about 40 km / h, but this is still far below the normal speed of normal vehicles. At the same time, unmanned bus Throttle Position Sensor frequent parking, for the use of public transport in terms of people, is also a problem. Keenly aware of the surrounding situation and frequent braking, the first is based on security considerations, after all, at this stage of unmanned driving has not been as random as the human brain. With the machine control of vehicles, developers are kept cautious, I believe in the perception of sensor accuracy, control the technical level has been improved, these are overcoming problems. The occurrence of frequent parking is related to the safety level. If the safety level of the unmanned vehicle is adjusted too high, it will brake regularly; if the safety level is reduced, the brakes will be reduced. To make unmanned and drivers driving more close to the state, can only be regular training and debugging. However, road test and did not imagine so simple, each test must be reported with the traffic control department in advance, the road will have a traffic police car to follow. At present, the 'People's Republic of China Road Traffic Safety Law' is not on the provisions of unmanned or automatic driving, for unmanned vehicles road test, in the country or legal blank.
In the Suzhou Automobile Research Institute view, the current unmanned car is a better application in the bus, the terminal container of the van, scenic sightseeing car, road maintenance on the sweeping car. The same characteristics of these cars is fixed lines, and van, scenic sightseeing car in a closed environment, subject to the law is also less. And sweeping the car is a functional vehicle, the normal speed of 10 km or less, through the sensor and laser radar to plan the path, can more accurately detect the distance between the car and the road, you can greatly ease the driver's fatigue.
The electric car is still focused on doing intelligent transportation network, planning to achieve bus-specific scenes of unmanned driving. As the current bus lines are not short, and the traffic is large, they believe that the full realization of unmanned driving is also very difficult to do so, so now able to achieve automatic charging, parking, start, parking, traffic flow can also be achieved Unmanned, to ease the driver's fatigue. Unmanned bus can really on the road, in addition to the need for the improvement of laws and regulations, technically there is still a long way to go. Zhuzhou in the development process, encountered a lot of problems, for example, the sensor to detect Pressure Switch the target obstacle accuracy, perception and decision control timing management, as well as the implementation of layer control accuracy. Suzhou Automobile Research Institute in the reporter's road test, but also because of technical problems and was forced to interrupt.